I think the word you are looking for is "tag". I couldn't agree more with you that everyone who posts a question should put tags on them. That's the perfect world and it doesn't happen until someone has been around for a while to understand the process. They cannot post a question without having some sort of tag there.
I don't remember exactly when it happens, but at some point level (I believe 4k), a user can go directly in and edit tags directly (a hidden "edit tags" will appear to the right of the tags in a question when you hover over the location). This allows any user with the permissions to edit the tags directly without going into the question and editing directly. As a lower level user, once you are able to edit someone's post, you can go in and add/change tags.
As for making someone add the right tags ... that would be near impossible. Until you've been around the site for a little while, you really don't have a clue what you should be posting in the tags anyway. There would be no way to enforce something like that ... someone would have to be policing the questions to ensure the tags are right ... wait ... we already do that by updating with the correct ones. IOW, to me it's a moot point. It's a great suggestion, but in reality it would be impossible to implement.
I would like to say, thanks for being on the site with us and hanging around. We are always looking for the fresh perspective. If you have further Meta questions, please don't be afraid to ask. They are always welcome as are you.